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Asunto:[gr_mulhacen] MINAS DE ORO - RUMANIA
Fecha: 10 de Noviembre, 2002  10:19:47 (+0100)


Estimados amigos:

Como algunos quizá ya sepáis, está a punto de consumarse un grave atropello 
contra el patrimonio histórico-arqueológico en Rumanía, en el complejo minero 
de Rosia Montana, en la vieja Dacia, cuyas riquísimas minas de oro fueron una, 
o quizá la principal, de las causas que motivaron las célebres campañas dácicas 
de nuestro emperador Trajano entre el 101 y el 107 d.C. 

Os incluyo más abajo dos documentos, de dos relevantes expertos en la cuestión, 
así como la página oficial donde puede firmar todo aquél que desee apoyar la 
protesta ante el Gobierno de Rumania por este atropello, y que es:

Por si alguno quisiera profundizar más en el tema, se puede obtener información 
complementaria sobre el problema actual, y sobre estas minas de oro (también 
muy conocidas por el hallazgo allí de las famosas «tablillas de Alburnus 
Maior»), unas tablillas en cera (soporte de la época), que recogían contratos de

trabajo y de arrendamiento de minas que riete tu de los actuales contratos
(¿esclavos? para qué, es más barato contratar personal libre).
 en las siguientes webs:

Por último, una pequeña información acerca del oro de los Dacios, a partir de 
textos e imágenes de la Columna Trajana:

Quizá entre muchos, de todo el mundo, podamos conseguir algo. Seguramente 
nosotros se lo debemos más, por el extraordinario afecto que hoy en día los 
rumanos profesan (¡a pesar de todo! y de los que les vino encima en su día) a 
nuestro Trajano, que mucho de lo allí ganado debió de invertir en nuestra

Gracias a cada uno por divulgar y contribuir en esta acción internacional. 
Cordiales saludos,
Juan Carlos Guisado di Monti


PRIMER DOCUMENTO (artículo de Volker Wollmann):

Position paper
on the proposal of Gold Corporation S.A. for the displacement of the relics of 
cultural history in Rosia Montana from their original place 
In order to be able to begin with large-scale open pit mining and the 
establishment of the ore dressing plant, the waste-tip, the tailings ponds 
etc., a considerable part of the town of Rosia Montana has to be resettled. 
This will affect 740 houses, 138 flats (apartments) in blocks of flats built 
for mine workers, as well as about 1600 ha of agricultural land in Rosia 
Montana and Corna. However, residents are most attached to the eight churches 
and the nine cemeteries thereof. Should the project be realised, some sporadic 
settlements and houses will also be cut off from the rest of the world 
practically, and will have to renounce any infrastructure.
The institutions responsible for saving and protecting the relics of Rosia 
Montana or rather the ancient Alburnus Maior, so significant in terms of 
cultural history, along with the traces of Roman mines, the newly discovered 
temples, sacred districts and the monumental sepulchres, have not yet found any 
practical solution; thus, the future of one of the most significant historic 
mining villages is uncertain. Also, the local museum for mining, including an 
open-air exhibition and a lapidarium of special significance, not to mention 
the Roman-age mine pit open to visitors in the Orlea Mountains, would be 
Description of the most significant relics, also considering their uniqueness 
on European level
As I can only make a judgement from the perspective of a archaeologist 
specialised in mining, it would be beyond my competence to comment on the 
displacement of various historic buildings (e.g. churches, cemeteries and 
typical civic buildings and others). While there are very few precedent cases 
of this sort, in the case of the churches of Rosia Montana, this seems totally 
unrealistic. Should they stay at their present place, their substance would get 
ruined shortly.
>From the professional point of view however, there are a number of other relics 
of especially high significance in cultural history in Rosia Montana, the 
uniqueness of which has to be pointed out below once more. One must not forget 
about the fact that the founding and later wealth of the settlement is 
attributable to gold mining which has left matchless traces and finds behind in 
the Roman Alburnus Maior. Last but not least, there are 25 wax tablets (tabulae 
ceratae) among these, which are unique written documents for the economic and 
social history of the Roman Empire.
The open-pit mine poses a threat first of all to the working places (mine 
adits, shafts, gangways) preserved from Roman times, under the surface in Orlea 
Mountains, Paru-Carpeni and Tarina, as well as the traces of Roman open-cast 
mining preserved in Carnic, Carnicei, Zeus and Gauri. As regards the scale of 
the Roman gangway net, Rosia Montana is at first place among the former 
provinces of the Roman Empire, outmatching finds in Spain, Portugal, Gaul and 
Also with regard to the fact that the finds are dated from the 1st-2nd century 
A.D., on the basis of the latest research (C14 and dendrologic examinations), 
it can be declared with certainty that these traces of mining, together with 
the inventory of other preserved relics (e.g. climbing poles) are from the 
Roman times.
Considering that there are practically no more Roman mining complexes of this 
scale anywhere in Europe, from the point of view of protectors of historic 
monuments, they have to be preserved in situ. Neither from a technical, nor 
from a logistical perspective, there is no possibility to transfer them, not 
even step-by-step. Moreover, one can only imagine the working conditions of the 
age and the antique mining technology if they are preserved at their original 
place. It would also be the task of our generation to preserve the mine 
pit "Catalina-Monulesti" in situ, as this is the place where the already 
mentioned unique wax tablets and one of the most ancient water-raising devices 
created by the technology of the ancient world were found.
Rosia Montana is, on the basis of the latest archaeological excavations in 
Carpeni and Gauri (2000-2002), in the position to present a typical Illyrian-
Roman mining village to professionals and a wide scale of visitors. Due to the 
uncovering of several temples (for the gods Silvanus, Ianus, Geminus among 
others), baths which most probably have not only been used by the military 
units posted here but also by the civic population, necropolises with a large 
variety of ways of burial, and one of the largest mausoleums of Dacia, this 
place here provides a uniquely clear picture of a settlement of special 
economic importance.
Without pointing extra to the significance of the inscriptions which lead to 
totally new aspects in studying Roman history of religion, we would like to 
draw attention to the importance of the mausoleum discovered late in the summer 
of 2002, the good condition of which underlines that it has to be preserved and 
showed to the public on site. Even without regard to the extraordinary way of 
construction, this funeral monument is of big archaeological significance. If 
compared to funeral monuments of other wealthy inhabitants of Alburnus Maior, 
it can take the position that it must have belonged to an especially important 
family, while one cannot preclude the possibility that there is a Princeps 
delmatus, i.e. head of an Illyric-Dalmatian tribe settled here as mine workers, 
in question.
Concluding view:
Should there be still the intention to transfer some relics (except for the 
ones mentioned above) and exhibits from the local museum to another place 
despite the above argumentation, a museum replacing the current one should be 
existing already considering that, according to official statements, open-pit 
mining should start in the foreseeable future.
Practice of museums has shown that, for a new museum, there is a nee for a 
concept for exhibition that has to be elaborated by professionals (in this 
case, by museologists, archaeologist, historians, historians specialised in 
mining, designers and museum education specialists). This calls for a series of 
preparatory works, e.g. an assessment of potential exhibits, architectural 
plans taking into account a suitable place for a museum etc.
According to the latest information, there is neither the intention nor any 
concrete idea for a new museum, the objects it would have to host, nor any 
schedule and financial plan. If the status quo were not preserved, the 
responsible bodies (Gold-Corporation and the Ministry for Culture of Romania) 
would have had to take a few concrete steps a long time ago already.
This being the case, we as professionals who intensively advocate for the 
necessity of preservation of the unique relics of cultural history in Rosia 
Montana consider it to be our duty to inform the public of this irremediable 

Prof.asoc.Dr. Volker Wollmann
Obrigheim (Germany)

SEGUNDO DOCUMENTO (carta de I. Piso):

September-October 2000
TO: Ministry of Culture, 
National Commission for Historic Monuments

From: Ioan Piso, Professor of Ancient History at the University of Cluj-Napoca 
and Director of the Museum of History, Cluj-Napoca [Rumanía]

Position to the new projects with regard to the Roman settlements of Alburnus 
Maior (Rosia Montana)

The company, Rosia Montana Gold Corporation conducted a program for geological 
prospecting of the gold reserve of Rosia Montana (Alburnus Maior), with the aim 
of future open-pit mining. The project proposed by the company covers an area 
of approx. 1000 ha. This includes the area of gold mining, the area for the 
deposition of dead rock and the area to which the present town of Rosia Montana 
will be proposed to be resettled. However, this is exactly the area, which 
contains most Roman traces.
The massif "Cetate", involving an impressive number of Roman galleries and 
shafts, has been partially destroyed by to the quarry opened during the 
In the massif "Orlea", there is a complex of Roman galleries and shafts open to 
visitors; it can be entered from the museum of Rosia Montana. There are 400 
metres of galleries open to the public. There are other galleries of a length 
of 8 km that have not been opened.
In the massif "Carnic", there have been galleries of 500 metres identified. In 
the gallery St. Simion, 11 Roman wax tablets were found in 1854.
In the massif "Carpeni", galleries of 150 metres, containing a lot of Roman 
treasures, were discovered in 1984.
In the massifs "Igre", "Vaidoaia" and "Letty", Roman galleries are not 
accessible any more. The wax tablets were found in the gallery "St. Joseph" in 
1788 and the gallery "Catalina-Monulesti" in 1855.
There is good reason to assume that most of the Roman galleries is still 
unknown. In the region of "Gauri", entrances of Roman galleries can be seen. A 
team from the university Toulouse (colleagues of the famous specialist of 
mining in the Roman age Claude Domergue) got into a section of a gallery in the 
summer of 2000 and found traces of extraction and the tools of Roman mine 
workers untouched.
There is another question, that of present/surface settlements. We have to 
emphasise that the Western Carpathian region formed some sort of El Dorado for 
the Roman world. Several populations, organised in castella, came here, 
especially from Dalmatia. The region of Alburnus Maior, most significant of 
all, was most intensely inhabited and exploited; there is practically no area 
without Roman traces. Archaeologists from the museum of Alba Iulia carried out 
searching excavations at 19 places in the summer and fall of 2000 and all of 
these lead to a discovery of Roman ruins. Here, we mention the region 
of "Tarini", containing settlements spread on a couple of dozen hectares, and 
the famous settlement of Taul Cornii. Nowhere has anything else but searching 
excavations been carried out and the settlements are practically untouched.
The open-pit extraction of gold ore deprives us of any hope that anything of 
this could be saved. The massifs with Roman galleries and the valley with the 
settlements will fully be extracted/destroyed. Here, there is one of the 
highest concentration/density of antique relics of Europe. The relics include 
Roman galleries in very good condition; these could be restored and opened to 
the public. Although little of Alburnus Maior has been discovered, the region 
has already contributed to science a lot, especially by the discovery of wax 
tablets which are essential in studying Roman economic life and law. Alburnus 
Maior does not only belong to a country but the history of European 
civilisation and Europe has to do their best to save/preserve it.

Prof. Dr. Ioan Piso 
Professor of Ancient History at the University of Cluj-Napoca and
Director of the Museum of History, Cluj-Napoca [Rumanía]

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